Microsoft Game Dev Blog
Azure DDoS Protection in Gaming: A Look at Attack Trends
In the second half of 2021, the world experienced an unprecedented level of Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) activity in both complexity and frequency. The gaming industry was perhaps the hardest hit, with DDoS attacks disrupting gameplay of Blizzard games1, Titanfall2, Escape from Tarkov3, Dead by Daylight4, and Final Fantasy 145 among many others. Voice over IP (VoIP) service providers such as Bandwidth.com6, VoIP Unlimited7, and VoIP.ms8 suffered outages following ransom DDoS attacks. In India, we saw a 30-fold increase of DDoS attacks during the nation's festive season in October9 with multiple broadband providers targeted, which shows that the holidays are indeed an attractive time for cybercriminals. As we highlighted in the 2021 Microsoft Digital Defense Report, the availability of DDoS for-hire services as well as the cheap costs—at only approximately $300 USD per month—make it extremely easy for anyone to conduct targeted DDoS attacks.
At Microsoft, despite the evolving challenges in the cyber landscape, the Azure DDoS Protection team was able to successfully mitigate some of the largest DDoS attacks ever, both in Azure and in the course of history. In this review, we share trends and insights into DDoS attacks we observed and mitigated throughout the second half of 2021.
UDP spoof floods dominated, targeting the gaming industry
User Datagram Protocol (UDP) attacks rose to the top vector in the second half of 2021, comprising 55 percent of all attacks, a 16 percent increase from the first half of 2021. Meanwhile, TCP attacks decreased from 54 percent to just 19 percent. UDP spoof floods were the most common attack type (55 percent), followed by TCP ACK floods (14 percent) and DNS amplification (6 percent).
Gaming continues to be the hardest hit industry. The gaming industry has always been rife with DDoS attacks because players often go to great lengths to win. Nevertheless, we see that a wider range of industries are just as susceptible, as we have observed an increase in attacks in other industries such as financial institutions, media, internet service providers (ISPs), retail, and supply chain. Particularly during the holidays, ISPs provide critical services that power internet phone services, online gaming, and media streaming, which make them an attractive target for attackers.
UDP is commonly used in gaming and streaming applications. The majority of attacks on the gaming industry have been mutations of the Mirai botnet and low-volume UDP protocol attacks. An overwhelming majority were UDP spoof floods, while a small portion were UDP reflection and amplification attacks, mostly SSDP, Memcached, and NTP.
Workloads that are highly sensitive to latency, such as multiplayer game servers, cannot tolerate such short burst UDP attacks. Outages of just a couple seconds can impact competitive matches, and outages lasting more than 10 seconds typically will end a match. For this scenario, Azure recently released the preview of inline DDoS protection, offered through partner network virtual appliances (NVAs) that are deployed with Azure Gateway Load Balancer. This solution can be tuned to the specific shape of the traffic and can mitigate attacks instantaneously without impacting the availability or performance of highly latency-sensitive applications.
Huge increase in DDoS attacks in India, East Asia remains popular with attackers
The United States remains the top attacked destination (54 percent). We saw a sharp uptick in attacks in India, from just 2 percent of all attacks in the first half of 2021 to taking the second position at twenty-three percent of all attacks in the second half of 2021. East Asia (Hong Kong) remains a popular hotspot for attackers (8 percent). Interestingly, relative to other regions, we saw a decrease in DDoS activity in Europe, dropping from 19 percent in the first half of 2021 to 6 percent in the second half.
The concentration of attacks in Asia can be largely explained by the huge gaming footprint10, especially in China, Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong, and India, which will continue to grow as the increasing smartphone penetration drives the popularity of mobile gaming in Asia. In India, another driving factor may be that the acceleration of digital transformation, for example, the "Digital India" initiative11, has increased the region's overall exposure to cyber risks.
Defended against new attack vectors
During the October-to-December holiday season, we defended against new TCP PUSH-ACK flood attacks that were dominant in the East Asia region, namely in Hong Kong, South Korea, and Japan. We observed a new TCP option manipulation technique used by attackers to dump large payloads, whereby in this attack variation, the TCP option length is longer than the option header itself.
This attack was automatically mitigated by our platform's advanced packet anomaly detection and mitigation logic, with no intervention required and no customer impact at all.
Protect your workloads from DDoS attacks with Microsoft
As the world moves towards a new era of digitalization with the expansion of 5G and IoT, and with more industries embracing online strategies, the increased online global footprint means that the threat of cyberattacks will continue to grow. As we have witnessed that DDoS attacks are now rampant even during non-festive periods, it is crucial for businesses to develop a robust DDoS response strategy all year round, and not just during the holiday season.
At Microsoft, the Azure DDoS Protection team protects every property in Microsoft and the entire Azure infrastructure. Our vision is to protect all internet-facing workloads in Azure, against all known DDoS attacks across all levels of the network stack.
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