GpioTestTool is a simple utility that allows you to write and read GPIO pins on the command line. GpioTestTool is written in standard C++ and consumes the Windows.Devices.Gpio WinRT APIs at the ABI level with the help of the Windows Runtime Library (WRL). These techniques can be used to consume most WinRT APIs from native applications.


GpioTestTool: Command line GPIO testing utility
Usage: GpioTestTool.exe [-list] PinNumber

  -list         List the available pins on the default GPIO controller.
  PinNumber     The pin number with which you wish to interact. This
                parameter is required.

 > write 0|1                        Write pin low (0) or high (1)
 > high                             Alias for 'write 1'
 > low                              Alias for 'write 0'
 > toggle                           Toggle the pin from its current state
 > read                             Read pin
 > setdrivemode drive_mode          Set the pins's drive mode
     where drive_mode = input|output|
 > interrupt on|off                 Register or unregister for pin value
                                    change events.
 > info                             Dump information about the pin
 > help                             Display this help message
 > quit                             Quit

Example Session:

gpiotesttool.exe 47
  Type 'help' for a list of commands
> info
        Pin Number: 47
      Sharing Mode: Exclusive
  Debounce Timeout: 0
        Drive Mode: input
> read
> setdrivemode output
> write 0
> write 1
> q

Building and running the sample

  1. Clone the samples repository to your local machine.
  2. Open GpioTestTool\GpioTestTool.sln in Visual Studio.
  3. Select the target architecture.
    • Select ARM for Raspberry Pi or DragonBoard 410c
    • Select x86 for MinnowBoardMax
  4. Go to Build -> Build Solution
  5. Copy GpioTestTool.exe from the build output folder to your device.
  6. SSH into your device and run GpioTestTool.exe (with the appropriate command line parameters, of course).

The code

The function MakePin() takes a pin number and returns an IGpioPin instance. It handles the WinRT boilerplate necessary to create an IGpioPin instance.

ComPtr<IGpioPin> MakePin (int PinNumber)
    ComPtr<IGpioPin> pin;

The first step is to activate an instance of IGpioControllerStatics, which is the interface that implements the static functions of the GpioController runtime class. We can get the statics of a runtime class with a Windows function called GetActivationFactory():

     // get the activation factory
    ComPtr<IGpioControllerStatics> controllerStatics;
    HRESULT hr = GetActivationFactory(
    if (FAILED(hr)) {
        std::wostringstream msg;
        msg << L"Failed to get activation factory for GpioController. hr = 0x" <<
            std::hex << hr;
        throw wexception(msg.str());

This will fail if the type Windows.Devices.Gpio.GpioController is not registered on the system.

Now that we have an interface to the static methods of GpioController, we can call GetDefault() to get the default GpioController on the system:

    ComPtr<IGpioController> controller;
    hr = controllerStatics->GetDefault(controller.GetAddressOf());
    if (FAILED(hr)) {
        throw wexception(L"Failed to get instance of default GPIO controller");

We always check the return value of GetDefault() for null because there may not be a GPIO controller on the current system.

    if (!controller) {
        throw wexception(L"GPIO is not available on this system");

Now that we have a GpioController instance, we can call OpenPin() to get a pin instance:

    hr = controller->OpenPin(PinNumber, pin.GetAddressOf());
    if (FAILED(hr)) {
        std::wostringstream msg;
        msg << L"Failed to open pin. hr = 0x" << std::hex << hr;
        throw wexception(msg.str());

    return pin;

Once we have a pin instance, we can read and write the pin:

void Blink ()
    HRESULT hr;

    auto pin = MakePin(47);

    // Latch a LOW value onto the pin
    hr = pin->Write(GpioPinValue_Low);
    if (FAILED(hr)) {
        throw wexception(L"Failed to write pin");

    // set the pin as an output
    hr = pin->SetDriveMode(GpioPinDriveMode_Output);
    if (FAILED(hr)) {
        throw wexception(L"Failed to set drive mode");

    // blink the pin
    for (unsigned int i = 0; i < 20; ++i) {
        hr = pin->Write((i & 1) ? GpioPinValue_High : GpioPinValue_Low);
        if (FAILED(hr)) {
            throw wexception("Failed to write pin");

That’s it! Using WinRT from straight C++ isn’t so bad after all.

Sample code

Language: C++

Tags: c++, intermediate, gpio, win32

Verified to work with:
Windows 10 IoT Core: Version 10.0.15063.0
Visual Studio 2017
Windows SDK: Version 15063
(Included with Visual Studio)

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